• Natia Chkhaidze Tbilisi State Medical University, Tbilisi, Georgia
  • Maia Kherkheulidze 1Tbilisi State Medical University, Tbilisi, 2Zhvania Pediatric Academic Clinic, Tbilisi
  • Ivane Chkhaidze 1Tbilisi State Medical University, Tbilisi. 3Iashvili Central Children Hospital, Tbilisi



Ventilator-associated pneumonia, probiotics, prevention


Ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with a high rate of all-cause mortality and a prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit stay. Ventilator associated pneumonia  accounts for about half of all antibiotics given in the intensive care unit. Plenty of studies have assessed various kinds of prevention strategies, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia over the years. An emerging number of studies has assessed the non-antibiotic approaches for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the last few years. One of the frequently used strategy is addition of probiotics in the preventive measures list.  Regular consumption of probiotics can modulate immune responses and metabolic processes as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The strongest evidence in favor of probiotics lies in the prevention or treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis, acute infectious diarrhea, acute respiratory tract infections, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and infant colic. The beneficial effects of probiotics in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia were not yet entirely clarified. Multiple pieces of evidence indicate that the bacteria that populate the gut efficiently modulate the immune response. Treatment with probiotics have shown promising preliminary results to attenuate systemic inflammation, especially in postoperative infections and ventilation performance. This review aims to summarize latest data on the use probiotics to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia in critical care unit.


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